Notwithstanding Articles 3 to 6, the maintenance creditor and debtor for the purpose only of a particular proceeding in a given State may expressly designate the law of that State as applicable to a maintenance obligation. They must not harm ESC rights of people living in another State; they must protect from harm by third parties the people that they regulate, control or are in a position to influence; and they must contribute to fulfilling ESC rights globally to the maximum of their available resources. The obligation to protect may involve a heightened measure when there is a power imbalance between an individual and a third party, such as in respect of large business enterprises. The obligation to respect requires that a State when discharging public powers, refrain from itself interfering with the existing enjoyment of a right by rights-holders.

Maintenance shall be governed by the law of the State of the habitual residence of the creditor, save where this Protocol provides otherwise. A sponsor may transfer responsibility for any or all of the obligations set forth in this part to a contract research organization. If not all obligations are transferred, the writing is required to describe each of the obligations being assumed by the contract research organization. If all obligations are transferred, a general statement that all obligations have been transferred is acceptable. Any obligation not covered by the written description shall be deemed not to have been transferred. Of course, as non-judicial mechanisms, Treaty Bodies and Special Procedures are not constrained by procedural and normative limitations that national courts and other adjudicative bodies encounter concerning alleged rights violations perpetrated in another State and/or concerning foreign actors.

Article I

EU data protection rules makes sure data transferred outside the EU gets a high level of protection in three ways. Tools available to check your organisation adheres to the EU’s data protection law. Obligations for organisations under EU data protection law are based on the type and volume of their activity not their size. Obligation means something particular in the world of derivatives, and especially in options trading. A call option, for instance, is a financial contract that gives the option buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy a stock, bond,commodity, or other asset or instrument at a specified price within a specific time period.


A person may themselves incur a obligation to perform a secondary obligation, for example, as a result of them breaching their primary obligation, or by another party breaching an obligation which the secondary obligor has guaranteed. Sociologists believe that obligations lead people to act in ways that society deems acceptable. Every society has their own way of governing, they expect their citizens to behave in a particular manner. Not only do the citizens have to oblige to the societal norms, they want to, in order to assimilate to society. Some philosophers on the other hand, argue that rational beings have moral duties, they make a choice to either fulfill these moral duties or disregard them. Obligations require an action being done and duty is the carrying out of this action.

UN Declaration on the Rights of Peasants: UN experts call for action ahead of anniversary

Any suggestion that the provisions indicated are inherently non-self-executing would seem to be difficult to sustain. In implementing the country-specific strategies referred to above, States should set verifiable benchmarks for subsequent national and international monitoring. In this connection, States should consider the adoption of a framework law as a major instrument in the implementation of the national strategy concerning the right to food. In developing the benchmarks and framework legislation, States parties should actively involve civil society organizations.


Paragraph of this clause does not apply to indemnification by the Government that is expressly authorized by statute and specifically authorized under applicable agency regulations and procedures. Any such clause is deemed to be stricken from the EULA, TOS, or similar legal instrument or agreement. Neither the Government nor any Government authorized end user shall be deemed to have agreed to such clause by virtue of it appearing in the EULA, TOS, or similar legal instrument or agreement. If the EULA, TOS, or similar legal instrument or agreement is invoked through an “I agree” click box or other comparable mechanism (e.g., “click-wrap” or “browse-wrap” agreements), execution does not bind the Government or any Government authorized end user to such clause. If the tenant violates any provision of this section, other than division of this section, the landlord may recover any actual damages that result from the violation together with reasonable attorney’s fees.

National Labor

Beach operators do not have a legal obligation to provide against injury or drowning. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site. A Contracting State to this Protocol may denounce it by a notification in writing addressed to the depositary. The denunciation may be limited to certain territorial units of a State with a non-unified legal system to which the Protocol applies. A declaration made at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall take effect simultaneously with the entry into force of this Protocol for the State concerned.

Effective protection to all of the moral and material interests of authors, as the creators of their scientific, literary and artistic productions. Access to such food in ways that are sustainable and that do not interfere with the enjoyment of other human rights. Protection of employment and against unlawful dismissal to all, especially for disadvantaged and marginalized individuals and groups, permitting them to live a life of dignity. There is in this regard a “strong presumption of impermissibility of any retrogressive measures” taken in relation to substantive rights. Ten years later, early 1997, the Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights were adopted and provided guidance as to what acts and omissions constitute violations of ESC rights. An employee may object to union membership on religious grounds, but in that case, must pay an amount equal to dues to a nonreligious charitable organization.


A collateralized debt obligation or CDO is a complex structured finance product backed by a pool of loans and other assets that are then sold to institutional investors. CDOs are a type of derivative and played a significant role in the 2007 housing crisis. Taxes, too, are a form of obligation, and failing to meet them results in large fines or imprisonment.

Definition and synonyms of obligation from the online English dictionary from Macmillan Education. The state of being forced to do something because it is your duty, or because of a law, etc. These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word ‘obligation.’ Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. These dinners have been going on for long enough for any in-law to catch up to traditions, and yet Obligations your brother has resisted hosting, which means that to him these dinners have always been more of an obligation than joyous get-togethers. Overall, the season felt like more of an obligation than a pastime, even with its monumental win. The Appeal Court observed in 1973 that the determination of whether a document is a guarantee or an indemnity, or whether it imposes a secondary or a primary liability, will always depend upon “the true construction of the actual words in which the promise is expressed”.